Tag Archives: acidity

Coloured Wine

How red is it anyway?

How red is it anyway?

The colour of a wine can tell you much about it, but sometimes all is not what it seems.

Blending wines
Decades ago it was quite normal for a Burgundy producer to add a good slug of wine from a warmer part of the world to make up for any deficiency in their product. In theory this shouldn’t happen any more, and better vineyard practices and winemaking skills have improved the wines. There are rumours of this sort of practice still happening in some regions; and in some parts of the world the geographic boundaries are so large that blending is normal practice.

What gives a wine its colour?
The colour comes mainly from the grape skins. A classic example of this is the Pinot Noir grape variety. It normally makes red wine, but the pulp in the centre of the grape is white, so, if you gently press the grapes, and ferment the juice you get a white wine, as in Blanc de Noir Champagnes.

Wine colours
I’ll exclude fortified wines.

    • White – wine made by pressing grapes, and fermenting the juice without skin contact.
    • Orange – wine made from white grapes, but where the skin is in contact with the juice during fermentation. This was very unusual, but is becoming more popular.
    • Rosé – wine made from red grapes, where the grape skins are left in contact with the juice for a short period to impart some colour.
    • Red – where the grape skins are left in contact with the juice throughout fermentation. The colour can vary from a pale garnet to an inky impenetrable purple.

Which other factors influence the colour?

  • Acidity. Usually expressed as the pH. The acidity decreases as a wine ages.
  • Sulphites. These are added as an anti-oxidation and to kill off bacteria, but they also change the colour of a wine.
  • Ageing. The chemical reactions in a wine cause white wines to become darker in colour as they age, and red wines to become paler. They all tend towards brown in the end.
  • Oak barrels. Some air reaches the wine whilst it is an oak barrel, and this can affect the colour, as can some chemicals leached from the oak.

Wine additives which influence colour

  • In addition, or instead of, blending wine from outside the region, some winemakers will add food colouring. The most honest of these are at least grape-derived, an example being ‘Mega Purple’. They are concentrates where a little goes a long way, and some change the taste as well as the colour.
  • It is also possible to remove colour by using activated charcoal.

Conclusion
There are two ways of looking at the manipulation of wine:-

  1. The wine reflects the area that it comes from, often referred to as terroir, and also the winemaker’s skill. The addition of wine from outside the area, or wine concentrate, masks the individuality of the wine and so detracts from it.
  2. The winemaker aims to produce a consistent product every year, and that additives which achieve that are entirely justified. Cynics might suggest that they simply make up for poor winemaking. It should be said that the blending techniques used in Champagne to achieve a standard non-vintage wine are an honest way to achieve a consistent product.

Drinking wine on an aeroplane – a disappointing experience

Wines are usually disappointing if you drink them on a plane. The circumstances are unusual, with conditions affecting both the wine and the drinker.

wines to drink on an aircraft

wines to drink on an aircraft

What is unusual about aeroplanes:-

  • Aircraft are pressurised at the equivalent of around 8,000 ft altitude, which is about three-quarters of that at sea-level.
  • Air-conditioning reduces the humidity to around 10%, much lower than most people are used to.
  • There is a lot of vibration.

Affect on the wine:-

  • Low pressure reduces solubility of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, and this reduces the wine’s freshness.
  • Red and white wines are usually served too warm, which has a significant influence on the taste and smell.
  • Wine is rarely served in a decent glass, and this has a negative influence.
  • Wines can be severely shaken up, which doesn’t help.

Affect on you:-

  • The low humidity has a direct influence on your nasal passages, and hence your sense of smell and taste.
  • You also salivate less in conditions of low humidity. Saliva moderates astringent tannins in wine, so a wine appears more astringent than normal in an aircraft.
  • Flying is stressful and tiring, and all this affects your senses.

Conclusion

The conditions tend to suppress the fruit and sweetness of a wine, and enhance any harsh acidity and tannin. So, wines need to be carefully selected to compensate for this.