Tag Archives: red

Coloured Wine

How red is it anyway?

How red is it anyway?

The colour of a wine can tell you much about it, but sometimes all is not what it seems.

Blending wines
Decades ago it was quite normal for a Burgundy producer to add a good slug of wine from a warmer part of the world to make up for any deficiency in their product. In theory this shouldn’t happen any more, and better vineyard practices and winemaking skills have improved the wines. There are rumours of this sort of practice still happening in some regions; and in some parts of the world the geographic boundaries are so large that blending is normal practice.

What gives a wine its colour?
The colour comes mainly from the grape skins. A classic example of this is the Pinot Noir grape variety. It normally makes red wine, but the pulp in the centre of the grape is white, so, if you gently press the grapes, and ferment the juice you get a white wine, as in Blanc de Noir Champagnes.

Wine colours
I’ll exclude fortified wines.

    • White – wine made by pressing grapes, and fermenting the juice without skin contact.
    • Orange – wine made from white grapes, but where the skin is in contact with the juice during fermentation. This was very unusual, but is becoming more popular.
    • Rosé – wine made from red grapes, where the grape skins are left in contact with the juice for a short period to impart some colour.
    • Red – where the grape skins are left in contact with the juice throughout fermentation. The colour can vary from a pale garnet to an inky impenetrable purple.

Which other factors influence the colour?

  • Acidity. Usually expressed as the pH. The acidity decreases as a wine ages.
  • Sulphites. These are added as an anti-oxidation and to kill off bacteria, but they also change the colour of a wine.
  • Ageing. The chemical reactions in a wine cause white wines to become darker in colour as they age, and red wines to become paler. They all tend towards brown in the end.
  • Oak barrels. Some air reaches the wine whilst it is an oak barrel, and this can affect the colour, as can some chemicals leached from the oak.

Wine additives which influence colour

  • In addition, or instead of, blending wine from outside the region, some winemakers will add food colouring. The most honest of these are at least grape-derived, an example being ‘Mega Purple’. They are concentrates where a little goes a long way, and some change the taste as well as the colour.
  • It is also possible to remove colour by using activated charcoal.

Conclusion
There are two ways of looking at the manipulation of wine:-

  1. The wine reflects the area that it comes from, often referred to as terroir, and also the winemaker’s skill. The addition of wine from outside the area, or wine concentrate, masks the individuality of the wine and so detracts from it.
  2. The winemaker aims to produce a consistent product every year, and that additives which achieve that are entirely justified. Cynics might suggest that they simply make up for poor winemaking. It should be said that the blending techniques used in Champagne to achieve a standard non-vintage wine are an honest way to achieve a consistent product.

Rioja

The wines of Rioja are a particular favourite of mine. The best wines show what the Tempranillo grape variety can achieve. Some wines are made to drink soon after they are made, and others just last for decades.

Rioja vineyards

Vineyards and mountains of Rioja

Geology
The Rioja region has a beautiful setting in central northern Spain. It is sheltered from the north, south and west by mountain ranges. The river Ebro, which is at the heart of Rioja, drains East into the Mediterranean, rather than the Atlantic which is much closer.

  • Soils near the river are alluvial deposits of sand, gravel and limestone.
  • Elsewhere, soils are a mixture of iron-rich clay, limestone and sandstone.
  • Geological activity over the years has turned this into a complex mix of soils, which can vary over short distances.

Climate
The mountains surrounding the Rioja region protect it from weather extremes. But it is influenced by three weather regimes.

  • Atlantic – mainly cool and wet.
  • Continental – searing hot in the Summer, and very cold in the Winter.
  • Mediterranean – a warmer influence from the East.

During the growing season, the weather is often hot and dry during the day, and much cooler at night. Ideal for growing grapes.

Rioja Wine Regions
There are three designated regions:-

  • Rioja Alta and Alavese to the West. The vineyards are at higher altitude and cooler than those to the East. The climate and soil are particularly suitable for high quality Tempranillo grapes.
  • Rioja Baja to the East. It is warmer and drier than it is to the West, and the conditions suit the Garnacha grape variety.

Wine classification
Rioja was the first wine region in Spain to be awarded DOCa status, the highest level in Spain. Within this there are four classifications based on the amount of barrel and bottle age that a wine has been given. However, this is only part of the story, as there can be a large variation in quality and price between wines within a given category.

  • Joven, or ‘young’ wines. These have no wood ageing, and are not for keeping.
  • Crianza – not released before their third year, with a minimum of 1 year in oak barrels.
  • Reserva – minimum of three years total ageing, of which at least 1 year is in barrel.
  • Gran Reserva – minimum of 2 years in barrel, and 3 years in bottle. Most producers will only make these wines in top years, when prime quality grapes are grown.

There are slightly different rules for white wine, but very few bodegas make wood-aged white Rioja any more.

New styles of wine
Red – some producers are trying to differentiate themselves from the rest by not using the above designations. They make a more powerful style of wine.
White – the old style of oaked white wines is a minority interest, even though the best are excellent. The new style is crisp and dry, and fairly aromatic. Made for the international market.

Conclusion
Rioja makes many really good wines, and apart from a few cult wines represents excellent value for money.

Wines to drink with blue cheese

 

unpasteurised blue cheese

unpasteurised blue cheese

Blue cheeses provide the biggest challenge when matching with wine. They can be sweet, salty and spicy. These attributes clash with the tannins in red wines, producing a metallic taste. The solution is sweet wine.

Methods for making sweet wines
Quality sweet wines are made by dehydrating grapes, which concentrates the sugar. If this is high enough, then some remains after fermentation. Examples of how these are made:-

  • A fungus called botrytis cinerea, also known as ‘noble rot’, can infect individual grapes under the right conditions. The infected grapes look revolting, but taste delicious.
  • ‘Ice wine’ where grapes are left on the vine until the weather gets cold enough to freeze them. If they are pressed in this state, the juice is very concentrated.
  • Grapes are allowed to dry on the vine, or after picking, to become raisin-like.

Examples of these types of wine are:-

  • Sauternes/Barsac from the Bordeaux region. Also look for Loupiac and Monbazillac, less expensive and from the same grape varieties and region.
  • Sweet Chenin Blanc wines from the LoireCoteaux de Layon, and Quarts de Chaume. Vouvray is made in many styles, and the sweet versions are labelled Moelleux or Liquoreux.
  • Sweet Alsace wines, particularly Selection de Grains Noble.
  • Tokaji from Hungary. The more Puttonyos declared on the label, the sweeter the wine.
  • Sweet Muscats, made in many countries.

Adding alcohol to stop the fermentation:-

Grape spirit can be added to partially fermented grape juice. This stops the fermentation and retains much of the grape sugar. This method is used to produce sweet red wines. Examples are:-

  • Port.
  • Banyuls or Maury from Southern France.

Cheese links

Conclusion

Cheese and wine – a match made in heaven.

The serving temperature of a wine is important

A wine’s serving temperature is probably the most important factor in your enjoyment. It won’t make a great wine out of an average one, but it will make the most of what you’ve got.

Red wine serving temperature

Red wine serving temperature

Serving reds at room temperature
The adage used to be – serve a red wine at room temperature. That was fine in the days before central heating, but now ‘room temperature’ is usually over 20ºC (68ºF) , which is just too high. Any red wine is just bland if it is too warm.

White wine serving temperature

White wine serving temperature

Serving dry whites straight from the fridge
A domestic fridge can get a bottle down to 5ºC (41ºF), if you leave it in there for long enough. At that temperature the wine will just numb the taste buds, and you won’t smell much either.

Serving sweet white wines
These should be served well-chilled, 8°C to 10°C, 46°F to 50°F, is a good guide. Lighter sweet wines can be served at even lower temperatures. Lower temperatures make sweet wines less cloying.

Serving sparkling wine
Freshness is important in a sparkling wine, so its temperature should be lower than a dry white. Serving straight from the fridge at a little over 5ºC (41ºF) is ideal.

The affect of ambient temperature
Once a wine has been poured, its temperature will quickly move to that of its surroundings.

  • If it’s a warm day, then start the wine at a lower temperature.
  • If the weather is cold, then serve the wine at the correct temperature – you can always warm it up in your hands.

The 20 minute rule
This is as simple a rule as you are likely to get. 20 minutes before a meal:-

  • put the red wine into the fridge.
  • take the white wine out.